The research center of flotation principle is the floatability of mineral, which is based on the physical and chemical properties of mineral surface to discuss the relationship between phase interface phenomenon and mineral floatability. With these basic knowledge as a guide, we can analyze the flotation process, master the separation conditions between various minerals, determine the appropriate process flow, in order to obtain higher quantity and quality indicators.


Flotation principle is a mineral processing method that uses different physical and chemical properties of mineral surface to separate minerals. Foam flotation is widely used in industry, which is characterized by useful minerals selectively attached to the air bubble in the pulp, and then floating to the surface of the pulp, to achieve the separation of useful minerals and gangue.

Before flotation, the ore must be ground to the size required by flotation so that the useful minerals can basically reach monomer dissociation for separation. Flotation reagent is added. During flotation, air is introduced into the pulp to form a large number of bubbles, so that the particles which are not easy to be moistened by water, namely the hydrophobic minerals, are attached to the bubbles and float to the surface of the pulp to form a mineralized foam layer; Those that are easily wetted by water, known as hydrophilic minerals, do not adhere to the bubbles and remain in the pulp. The purpose of separation is achieved by discharging the mineralized foam.

Flotation is usually called positive flotation by floating useful minerals into the foam products and leaving gangue minerals in the pulp. But sometimes gangue minerals are floated into the foam products, leaving useful minerals in the pulp. This flotation is called reverse flotation.


If the ore contains two or more kinds of useful minerals, there are two kinds of flotation methods, one is called preferential flotation, that is, the useful minerals one by one is selected as a single concentrate; The other is called mixed flotation, that is, the useful minerals are selected at the same time as the mixed concentrate, and then the useful minerals in the mixed concentrate are separated by one.

Flotation application range is particularly wide, the vast majority of ores can be used by flotation method. More than 90% of non-ferrous metals (copper, lead, zinc, etc.) ores are separated by flotation.

Flotation method has relatively high separation efficiency, it can effectively select the ore with very low grade into high grade concentrate, especially for the ore with fine particle distribution and complex composition, the flotation method can often achieve better separation effect. But flotation method must use flotation agents, so its beneficiation cost and gravity separation method and magnetic separation method compared, generally higher.

Post time: Mar-08-2023